18 Scarey Oropharyngeal Cancer Statistics

Oropharyngeal cancers develop not in the oral cavity, but in the part of the throat that is just behind the mouth. It’s basically where the oral cavity stops and the mouth begins. The various parts of the body that can be affected by this cancer include the back third of the tongue, the side and back walls of the throat, the tonsils, and the soft palate.

Facts About Oropharyngeal Cancer

1. 90% of the oropharyngeal cancers that are diagnosed are squamous cell carcinomas.
2. Verrucous carcinoma is a type of squamous cell carcinoma that makes up less than 5% of all oropharyngeal cancers.
3. About 39,500 people will get oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer.
4. 7,500. That’s the number of people who die of oral or oropharyngeal cancers every year.
5. Oropharyngeal cancers are more than twice as common in men as in women.
6. Oropharyngeal cancers are about equally common in blacks and in whites.
7. The death rate for oropharyngeal cancers has been decreasing over the last 30 years.
8. The back third of the tongue is the most common place for this type of cancer to develop.
9. The average age of most people diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancers is 62.
10. 1 in 4 cases of oropharyngeal cancer are diagnosed in patients who are under the age of 55.
11. Tobacco and alcohol use are among the strongest risk factors for oropharyngeal cancers.
12. About 7 out of 10 patients with oral cancer are heavy drinkers.
13. The risk of these cancers in heavy drinkers and smokers may be as much as 100x more than the risk of these cancers in people who don’t smoke or drink.
14. HPV DNA is now found in 2 out of every 3 oropharyngeal cancers that are diagnosed. Oropharyngeal cancers that contain HPV DNA tend to have a better outlook than those without HPV.
15. For cancers of the oropharynx and tonsil, the relative 5-year survival rate is 66%, but survival by stage is not available.
16. Hispanics and Alaska Natives or American Indians are 2x less likely to be diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancers than any other racial demographic.
17. In 2010, it was estimated that approximately $3.2 billion is being spent in the United States each year on treatment of head and neck cancers.
18. Those who have oropharyngeal cancer a first time and go into remission have a 20x higher risk of developing the same cancer a second time.

Different cancer cells can all develop into oropharyngeal cancers. Knowing the statistics about these different types of cancers that can affect this area of the body are important because they have a direct impact on what the prognosis will be. Some growths that are noticed in this area are not cancerous at all. Some may be harmless now, but have the ability to grow into cancer later. These pre-cancerous growths usually have a white or gray patchwork look to them or they might bleed when scraped.

Most oropharyngeal cancers, however, do not develop from a pre-existing lesion.

Have Oropharyngeal Cancers Evolved?

In the past, oropharyngeal cancers were believed to be caused by tobacco or alcohol use only. With a majority of these cancers now having HPV DNA in them, researchers are beginning to take a second look at the problem. Some believe that the increased prevalence of oral sex in the general population is causing the DNA to infuse itself into existing cancerous or pre-cancerous cells. Others believe that HPV could be causing the cancer itself.

As with most forms of cancer, early detection is the key to successfully treating oropharyngeal cancers. Regular dentist appointments can help to detect problematic areas so early biopsies can be ordered. A routine checkup at the doctor’s office is also beneficial, especially once the age of 55 is reached. Everyone must be on guard for this cancer, but 3 out of 4 cases happen in the 55+ age demographic.

The best way to reduce the risks of this cancer developing is to eat a healthy diet, stop smoking if you are, and avoid drinking heavily. There has been a dramatic decrease in the numbers of non-HPV related cancers over the last 30 years because of simple changes in lifestyle habits. Take care of yourself, get checked regularly, go to the doctor if there is a sore or discolored area in the mouth that doesn’t heal in 2 weeks, and you will be able to worry less about oropharyngeal cancer.

Chemo vs Radiation

Cancer can be a very rough and troubling time in anyone’s life. The treatments that are involved in the treatment of cancer can be very costly, and also have some serious side effects. Chemotherapy and Radiation are the two forms of treatment that are available for cancer patients. Each are extremely different, but both are highly effective and necessary.

Key Information About Chemo

1. Basics
Chemotherapy technically means the use of any drug to treat a disease. Most people just refer to chemotherapy as treatment for cancer, which is what we will be talking about in this article. Chemotherapy, often shortened to chemo, is the use of one or a combination of multiple drugs in order to combat cancer. The type of chemo drugs that are used depend fully on the type of cancer being fought.

2. Types
There are hundreds of chemo drugs that are regularly administered to cancer patients. The types of drugs all do different things and treat different, specific cancers. They can be lumped into several smaller groups based on what they do, their chemical structure, and their relationships with other drugs.
Alkylating drugs cause direct damage to DNA in order to prevent cancer cells from reproducing. Nitrogen mustards, triazines, and ethylenimines are all examples of these.

These are anti-tumor antibiotics that cause disruption to the enzymes that are responsible for DNA replication. They work in all parts of the cell cycle. These are considered dangerous because they can cause damage to the heart.

Mitotic Inhibitors
These inhibitors are derived from natural products like plants. They work to stop enzymes from creating the protein that cells need in order to reproduce.

While these drugs are not always used for cancer treatment, when they are they are considered chemotherapy. They work to prevent the vomiting and nausea that often come with the use chemo therapy.

3. How?
The administration of chemotherapy drugs can happen in multiple ways and like most other parts of chemo, depend on the type of cancer being treated. Injections in the muscles, intravenous (IV), oral, and intraperitoneal are some of the most common.

4. Side Effects
One of the biggest things people think of when they think about chemotherapy is the side effects that are endured. These side effects are caused because along with killing cancer cells, healthy cells are also killed in the process. The specific effects that are experienced are different with each drug. The most common are diarrhea, memory changes, general pain, loss of hair, constipation, anemia, nausea and vomiting, and swelling.

Things To Know About Radiation

1. Overview
Radiation therapy is a treatment for tumors and cancer. It uses high energy and concentration of radiation in order to shrink tumors or kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA. Nearly half of all cancer patients receive radiation therapy during their treatment.

2. How?
If your doctor has decided that radiation will be an effective treatment for your specific form of cancer than a CT scan will be performed in order to begin mapping out the exact position and locations that the radiation will be administered. The oncologist will treat the tumor as well as a small portion of healthy cells around, this is done to ensure that the tumor has been hit.

3. Types
There are various different types of radiation therapy that can be used. The type depends on the area of the location being treated and the size of the tumor(s).
External Beam Radiation
This form of radiation is delivered using a linear accelerator. It forms a stream of subatomic particles using electricity. These particles create the radiation that is used to treat the cancer.
Internal Radiation
This form of radiation is given by placing radioactive materials in or on the body. This is used when the tumors that are being treated are located inside a chest cavity, or an area of the body that cannot be reached without significant damage to other parts of the body.
Systemic Radiation
Systemic radiation therapy is when the patient swallows or is injected with a radioactive substance. The substance then travels through the blood and kills cancer cells.

4. Side Effects
There are some general side effects to radiation therapy but the majority of serious ones are site specific. This means that the area being treated will most likely experience the most effects. Some of the common ones are:
Skin Problems (drying, blistering, itchiness)
Risk of Other Cancers

Differences Between Chemotherapy and Radiation

1.Type of Treatment
Chemo and radiation therapies are very different in the way they treat the cancer. With chemo, a cocktail of drugs are administered in order to kill cancer cells. Radiation uses high doses of targeted radiation in order to destroy cancer cells.

2. Side Effects
Chemotherapy drugs have a large number of rather severe side effects. These can be debilitating and life altering. Radiation however, only has a few side effects and most do not effect the entire body.

3. Cost
The costs of these therapies are very hefty. A “round” of chemo therapy, which is usually 3 to 4 months, can run a whopping 25,000 dollars. This amount varies with the type of cancer being treated and the drugs being used. Radiation costs between 1500 and 4000 dollars depending on the form of treatment and the technology used.

4. Both Used
While each are extremely different, they are both the most effective form of treatment for life threatening cancers. Success in remission is nearly impossible with the use of one or both of these treatments.

Diverticulitis vs Colon Cancer

Problems with your digestive system can cause serious discomfort and disrupt normal day to day life activities. The underlying causes of these painful symptoms can be difficult to diagnosis. Two common digestive diseases include colon cancer and ,the less serious, diverticulitis. Each have unique symptoms and very different treatment paths.

Down Low On Diverticulitis

1. Overview
Diverticulitis is an common digestive disease that is caused when small pouches form on the intestinal lining. Small pieces of feces become trapped in these pouches and cause irritation and infection in the intestines. This disease is typically caused in the large intestine but can, on rare occasions, occur in the small intestine as well.

2. Symptoms
The symptoms of diverticulitis are mostly in the lower abdomen and include a drastic change in bowel movements, nausea, fever, abdominal tenderness, pain in the lower abdomen, constipation, vomiting, and on some occasions, diarrhea. These symptoms can range in severity depending on how badly the infection has become.

3. Causes
The exact cause of this disease isn’t known but there are many factors that are believed to play a large role in the development. Diet is the number one cause that is thought to impact your likeliness of developing diverticulitis. Eating an excessive amount of processed foods puts great pressure on the colon, and could cause parts of it to weaken and give out, producing the sacs that are present with diverticulitis. Age is another risk factor for this disease, most cases occur in people 60 years of age and older. A lack of exercise is thought to be another factor in developing this disease.

4. Diagnosis
If you believe you are suffering from diverticulitis there is a number of ways your doctor may test you for it. Blood and urine tests are often collected in order to determine if there is an infection present. A CT scan may also be performed in order to visually check for inflamed pouches in the intestines. They can also help to determine how severe an infection is.

4. Treatment
Treatment depends largely on the severity of your case. In uncomplicated situations rest, antibiotics, and over the counter pain medications to help manage pain will usually do the trick. In very severe cases primary bowel resection surgery may be required. A surgeon goes in an removes the diseased portions of your intestines.

Important Facts About Colon Cancer

1. The Basics
Colon cancer is cancer of the lower digestive system and the large intestine. Most cases begin with adenomatous polyps, that are small non cancerous clumps of cells, that over time develop into cancer. This form of cancer is the third most common in men and fourth most common in women.

2. Symptoms
It is important that you if notice any of the signs of colon cancer that you see a doctor as soon as possible. The most common symptoms include general weakness, feeling like you can’t completely empty your bowels, rectal bleeding, a change in the consistency of stool, unexplained weight loss, constant abdominal discomfort, and changes in bowel habits. Most people show no symptoms in the early stages of colon cancer and symptoms vary greatly depending on the size of tumor that is present.

3. Who?
Colon cancer is most common in men over the age of 50 years old. However anyone can be affected with colon cancer regardless of age or sex. Having a family history of the disease also increases your risk of developing colon cancer. Another risk factor is being African-American, as they have a greater risk than people of other races.

4. Treatment
The treatments that are available depend on what stage of cancer you have reached. Surgery is an option for early stages because the polpys may be able to be completely removed. If surgery is not successful in removing the tumors then chemotherapy or radiation may be necessary.

Differences Between Diverticulitis and Colon Cancer

Diverticulitis is caused by an infection of the intestines caused by small pouches that have formed on the intestinal lining. Colon cancer however is caused by small lumps that progress into cancerous tumors.

2. Treatment
The treatment of colon cancer involves invasive surgeries and chemotherapy, which has very negative side effects. With diverticulitis 70 percent of cases can be cured with doctor prescribed antibiotics.

3. Severity
The severity of each of these disease are also very different. Cancer is a life threatening and non curable disease that has extreme effects on the entire body, it also has the potential of spreading to other parts of the digestive system and entire body. Diverticulitis can be cleared up with rest and is rarely life threatening.

16 Incredible Laryngeal Cancer Statistics

Laryngeal cancer, which is a cancer that forms in the larynx, forms in the throat between the base of the tongue and the trachea. This is where the vocal cords are located as air causes vibrations and sounds when pushed against them. The cancer can form in any or all of the three main parts of the larynx: the supraglottis, the glottis, or the subglottis. Almost all laryngeal cancers are squamous cell cancers, which are the thin cells that line the throat.

Facts About Laryngeal Cancer

1. There will be about 12,600 new cases of laryngeal cancer in the United States in the next 12 months.
2. Laryngeal cancer makes up 0.8% of all new cancer cases that are diagnosed every year.
3. The percentage of cancer deaths that are caused by laryngeal cancer: 0.6%.
4. Approximately 0.4 percent of men and women will be diagnosed with larynx cancer at some point during their lifetime.
5. The number of new cases of larynx cancer was 3.3 per 100,000 men and women per year.
6. In 2011, there were an estimated 89,265 people living with larynx cancer in the United States.
7. 55.6% cases of laryngeal cancer are diagnosed when it is still at the localized stage. When this occurs, the 5 year survival rate is above 75%.
8. The overall 5 year survival rate of laryngeal cancer is 60%.
9. If the cancer has spread to nearby areas and/or lymph nodes, the five-year survival rate is 39%.
10. Rates for new larynx cancer cases have been falling on average 2.5% each year over the last 10 years. It is believed that this is because fewer people are smoking on a regular basis.
11. Death rates have been falling on average 2.2% each year over 2002-2011.
12. Laryngeal cancer becomes more common with age and is more common in men than in women. Fewer than 3,000 women in the United States will be diagnosed with this cancer in the next 12 months.
13. Survival rates for people with cancer in the glottis range from 90% when the cancer is found at the earliest stage to 44% in the most advanced stage.
14. For cancer in the supraglottis, the rates are 59% for the earliest stage to 35% for the most advanced stage.
15. With cancer in the subglottis, the rates range from 65% at the earliest stage to 32% at the most advanced stage.
16. 3,600. That’s the number of people who are expected to succumb to this disease over the next 12 months.

There are two primary risk factors that increase a person’s risk of developing this cancer: smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol. How much alcohol may be too much is dependent on the individual, so people may wish to speak with their doctor if they are concerned about their lifestyle habits. A visit to the doctor is also necessary if there is a lump in the throat or the neck, there is ongoing ear pain, trouble swallowing, or a sore throat that doesn’t go away.

Laryngeal cancer may also cause a change in a person’s voice. The diagnosis of cancer is always scary, but there is some good news. The facts about laryngeal cancer shows that it can be defeated so that remission can occur.

What Is the Key To Defeating Laryngeal Cancer?

As with most cancers, the best way to defeat laryngeal cancer is to catch it early. Because the cancer directly affects a person’s ability to swallow or talk, it can often be caught in its early stages. Only 1 in 5 people who are diagnosed with this cancer over the next year will have had the cancer metastasized when the diagnosis is received.

With 90% survival rates based on the location of the cancer within the larynx, there is less to worry about with this cancer than other forms – even when there are advanced or unstaged cancers diagnosed in a patient.

Survival rates should be taking with some caution. Although laryngeal cancer is quite rare when compared to all cancers, it is one of the most common head and neck cancers. Treatment decisions and medication compliance all have a factor in the successful treatment of this disease. If you aren’t feeling well, have noticed ongoing changes with your voice or have ear pain that won’t go away, then seek out the advice of a doctor right away.

It could be a choice that saves your life.

4 Interesting Facts About Ovarian Cancer

All women are at risk for developing ovarian cancer, no matter your age. The risk increases around 40, however, and continues to increase with age from there. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women in the United States. Early detection is critical in successful treatment of the disease.

1. Age and Risk Factors

In addition to getting older, there are a few risk factors to keep in mind. If you have had other types of cancer, particularly gynecologic cancer, your chance of having ovarian cancer are increased. If any close relatives have had it, you are also at risk. Those of an Eastern European or Jewish background have a higher rate of ovarian cancer than others. If you have ever had difficulty getting pregnant, you may be at risk. If any of these apply to you, speak with your doctor about your chances of contracting ovarian cancer.

2. Symptoms

There are several symptoms to watch out for that may indicate ovarian cancer. These include vaginal bleeding, pain or pressure in the abdominal or pelvic area, back pain, persistent bloating, feeling full more quickly while eating, having to pee more often or more urgently. These symptoms are often caused by other, less severe conditions. No matter what is causing them, you should speak with your doctor as soon as possible if you are experiencing any of these. If you do have ovarian cancer, detecting it and treating it quickly leads to a much higher survival rate.

It is important for you to pay attention to what your body is telling you. Only you can really know what is normal for you. This is especially true in your eating and bathroom habits. It does not matter what is normal for other women. If you notice yourself having to pass urine more frequently than you are used to, it could be a sign that something is not right.

3. How to Lower Your Risk

If you have used birth control for a long period of time, it reduces your risk of getting ovarian cancer. Getting your tubes tied or having a hysterectomy also lowers your chances. If you have given birth you are at less of a risk. If ovarian cancer is detected, your doctor may recommend removing one or both of your ovaries in order to prevent the cancer from spreading to the surrounding tissue.

4. Prevention

It is important to remember that a Pap test is used to test for cervical cancer. It will not detect ovarian cancer. Rectovaginal pelvic exams, transvaginal ultrasounds, and CA-125 blood tests are used to check for ovarian cancer. You should speak to your doctor about getting one of these tests if you have detected any of the above symptoms in yourself, you have had another form of cancer, or a close relative has been treated for ovarian cancer.

If the tests find that you do have ovarian cancer, your doctor can recommend you to a gynecologic oncologist who specializes in this type of cancer. With early detection, successful treatment is not unlikely.

Acute VS Chronic Leukemia

Leukemia is a devastating form of blood cancer that affects your blood cells and marrow. The two major types are acute and chronic. These two have many similarities in the symptoms and treatments but are vastly different when it comes to the way they progress.

Overview Of Acute Leukemia

1. Rapid
With acute leukemia the abnormal blood cells are unable to perform their normal functions due to the immaturity of the cells. This also causes the cells to multiply very rapidly, making the person feel very ill at a sudden pace.

2. Not Enough Room
Because the cells are increasing at a very fast rate, yet cannot perform their functions, they begin to replace the healthy cells in the blood and marrow. This causes the person to develop easy infection, easy bleeding, and anemia.

3. Young Ages
Because acute leukemia is marked by immature cells it is most common in young children ages 2 through 5. However it is possible to occur in adults, but much less likely.

4. Symptoms
Symptoms of acute leukemia include loss of appetite, spots under the skin from bleeding, high and sudden fever, unexplained bruising, extreme fatigue, and bone pain.

5. Prognosis
Many factors contribute to the prognosis of acute leukemia, including which part of the body’s blood is being most affected. Without proper treatment this disease can spread very rapidly to the brain and spinal cord, making it very dangerous. With prompt treatment the possibility of remission is high.

Overview of Chronic Leukemia

1. Early Detection
Chronic leukemia means that the affected blood cells can still perform the majority of their functions, making it a very slow progressing disease. This also means that it is often diagnosed very early, before symptoms even begin, in routine blood tests.

2. Three Phases
Chronic leukemia has three potential phases, however not all are always reached. These are the chronic phase, when the cells still perform most functions, the accelerated phase, the number of white blood cells change drastically either up or down and anemia is usually developed, and the blast crisis phase, which is when the cancerous cells increases in the bone marrow and infections and severe symptoms develop.

3. Risk Factors
It has been shown that there are some factors that may increase the likely hood of chronic leukemia developing. These are : radiation exposure and age and gender. Your risk increases the older you get and is more common in males. Chronic Leukemia is not hereditary.

4. Symptoms
The symptoms of chronic leukemia are hard to pinpoint because they can be caused by many different things. These are the most common experienced: Weight Loss, enlarged spleen, stomach pain, loss of appetite, night sweats, and bone pain.

Differences Between Acute Leukemia and Chronic Leukemia

1. Time frame
The key difference between acute and chronic leukemia is how quickly they progress. Acute leukemia progresses at a much fast rate than chronic leukemia does.

2. Who Is Affected
Due to the way that the cells increase and function, the difference between affected age ranges are on the opposite ends of the spectrum. Acute leukemia is most commonly found in very young children, with immature cells. Chronic leukemia is more common in older people, because it develops very slowly and has to combat already mature blood cells.

3. Survival Rates
When it comes to the survival rates of these type of leukemia many things have to be taken into account. With chronic leukemia age is a huge factor, with the average percentage of people living over 5 years at 60%. 50% of patients under the age of 40 with acute leukemia lived over 5 year while only 12% of patients over 50.

4 Interesting Facts About Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world and, while strides are being made every day to combat its sometimes deadly spread, it continues to be a major health risk for women across the globe. At the early stages of cervical cancer, there are typically no symptoms, but as time passes symptoms can include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and pain during sex.

1. What Causes Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus, or HPV, which a common sexually transmitted disease. While HPV only affects women, men can carry the virus and spread it to sexual partners. The virus is so common that as many as eighty percent of sexually active women acquire an HPV infection at some point during their life. Because HPV is prevalent, it is important for women to regularly get a pap smear in order to detect the virus before it develops into cervical cancer.

While HPV is almost always present in those who develop cervical cancer, most people exposed to the virus never develop cervical cancer. Other risk factors linking to the cancer include birth control pills, smoking, and having many sexual partners or becoming sexually active at a young age. Nonetheless, no single risk factor is as likely to lead to cervical cancer as exposure to HPV and so research and prevention continues to prioritize HPV prevention.

2. Protecting Yourself

There are currently two HPV vaccines, Gardisil and Cervarix, which lower the probability of cervical cancer by as much as 93%. Because the vaccines are given to women as young as nine years old, there was initially some public hesitance to widely adopt the vaccine, but rates are on the rise and more women are being vaccinated at a younger age every year, offering some protection before they are exposed to HPV.

While the link between cervical cancer and HPV has been widely publicized in the United States, leading to the rise of the HPV vaccine, other parts of the world are being hit harder than ever by the disease. For example, more women in South Africa die of cervical cancer than any other form of cancer and, globally, a woman loses her life to cervical cancer every two minutes.

3. Treatment and Prevention

There are varied treatments for cervical cancer across the world, with “fertility sparing therapy” (a surgery that keeps the woman’s reproductive organs healthy and functional after the procedure) increasingly common in the developed world. In those part of the world where cervical cancer is most common, however, skilled surgeons are not as accessible and radioactive treatments are often employed, with varied side effects.

4. Statistics

While cervical cancer can be deadly, with early detection, there is a survival rate near 100% for women with only microscopic forms of cervical cancer and, with treatment, the survival rate for early stages of invasive cervical cancer is 92% and, combing all phases of the disease including the later stages, is still above 72%.

Though a study showed that in 2007 found that only 40% of American women had head of HPV and less than half of those were aware that it was a cause of cervical cancer, it is clear that awareness about the disease has exploded in recent years. The best thing we can do is to continue to spread awareness and encourage regular pap smears and, where appropriate, vaccinations against HPV. Cervical cancer may never be eradicated but, with careful monitoring and treatment at early stages, many hope to see survival rates climb ever closer to 100%.

5 Interesting Facts About Bone Cancer

Bone cancer can be primary which is the cancer which forms in the cells of the bone or secondary bone cancer which is cancer that spreads from other parts of the body like the breast, prostate or lung to the bone. Bone cancer usually occurs when there is a problem with the cells that make bones.

Most Common Bone Cancers

1. Osteosarcoma
This is the most common type and occurs mostly in males between the ages of ten and twenty five. The tumors will occur in the long bones of the legs and arms as well as around the shoulders and knees.

2. Ewing’s Sarcoma
This is an aggressive type of bone cancer that occurs in children who are between the ages of four and fifteen. It is found in the midpoint of the long bones in the legs and arms.

3. Chondrosarcoma
This cancer is the second most common type of bone cancer. The cancer occurs in cartilage cells and the tumors can be slow or aggressive when forming.

4. Fibrosarcoma
This is a very rare bone cancer which usually occurs in adults that are between the ages of thirty five and fifty five. It always shows up in the leg behind the knee.

5. Chordoma
This is also a very rare type of bone cancer and can occur when the patient is above thirty five years of age.

Common Symptoms and Effects

The symptoms of bone cancer develop slowly and also depend on the type, size and location of the tumor. The signs as well as symptoms include swelling of the joints and bone, painful bones and joints, difficulties with movement as well as susceptibility to fractures. There may also be tiredness, unexplained weight loss, sweating, nausea, vomiting, fever, general distress and pain in the abdomen

Bone cancer is mostly diagnosed in the long bones of the legs and arms. The diagnosis involves tests that include bone scans and X-rays to show the exact size and location of the cancer. Bone biopsy is also done where a sample of the cancer from the bone is removed and then examined in the laboratory for any presence of malignant cells. Another test that can be done is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan that is similar to a CT scan although it uses magnetism instead of x-rays.

The treatment of bone cancer depends on factors that include the type as well as extent of the cancer, the age of the patient and the overall health status. The tumors can be treated with radiation therapy, surgery and chemotherapy.

In the primary bone cancers, the tumor that surrounds the bone tissue and nearby lymph nodes can be surgically removed. In cases that are severe, the affected limb can be amputated.

Treatment can also include chemotherapy and radiotherapy which can be done before surgery, so that the cancer can be shrunk and later on destroyed.

The treatment of secondary bone cancer will include radiotherapy, hormone therapy or chemotherapy. However surgery may be needed just to strengthen the affected bone.

5 Interesting Facts About Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer has reached a higher level of societal awareness thanks to Steve Jobs and his courageous battles with this disease over the years. About 40,000 Americans will be diagnosed with this cancer every year and having it isn’t good news. It’s a difficult cancer to detect until it hits its later stages because there are often no signs and symptoms. By knowing these interesting facts about the 4th leading cause of cancer deaths in the US, however, you or someone you know might find the one bit of information that could save their life.

1. It’s almost always a death sentence.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the few cancers that has seen no improvement in the way that it is treated over the last four decades. When stretching out survival rates to 5 years for this cancer, there is just a 6% life expectancy rate. 3 out of 4 people who are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer will actually die from it within the first year of their diagnosis. If metastatic disease is included, life expectancy rates may be as low as 3 months.

2. There are very few treatment options.

When there is a tumor on the pancreas that is causing the tumor, only about 20% of them are operable. A typical treatment option that is offered is extensive chemotherapy with radiation therapy in order to kill off the cells of the tumor. If there were any detection tools available to help find the cancer sooner, success rates might be higher, but there hasn’t been any real changes made in this field of medicine since 1974.

3. Hardly any money is spent on pancreatic cancer research.

Although at first glance, the $105.3 million that is spent annually on research for this deadly cancer seems like a lot of money, it really is barely a drop in the bucket. The National Cancer Institute spends nearly $6 billion every year on cancer research. This means that pancreatic cancer research is rarely more than 2% of its overall budget. That’s not good news to the 39,000 people who will die from pancreatic cancer this year.

4. Where people get treated matters.

The procedure that helps to remove the tumor from a pancreas is called a Whipple procedure. There is a direct correlation to the 5 year survival rates for patients who get treated at facilities who perform 20 or more of these procedures. Even when a tumor is classified as large, above 4 centimeters, the 5 year survival rate can surpass 25% as long as the cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or other organs.

5. The risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer are not really known.

Doctors do know that having diabetes or the risk factors to develop diabetes, smoking, a family history of cancer, and age are related to having a higher risk of pancreatic cancer. Why the cancer forms, however, is not really known right now. Add this to the fact that most people don’t even know they have the cancer until it is too late and it is definitely a silent killer.

Early detection of pancreatic cancer is essential, so any changes in your lifestyle or routine that seem out of character, including prolonged stool changes, should be evaluated by a medical professional. This is especially true if you have a family history of cancer. It might turn out to be nothing, but it might also be the one decision that saves your life.

6 Interesting Facts About Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers that develops in men, but it generally doesn’t occur until later on in life. Guys who have some form of prostatitis over their lifetime, or a swelling of the prostate for any reason that may or may not cause pain, tend to have a higher risk of developing a cancer of the prostate. All older guys should have routine checks done to see if they may have early stage cancer. It can often be symptomless and that can mean not catching the disease in time to treat it appropriately.

Here are 5 interesting facts you’re going to want to know.

1. It can be inherited.

About 10% of the total cases of prostate cancer that will be diagnosed in the next year will have a genetic component to them. It’s the same gene, the BRCA2, that can also cause breast cancer in women.

2. It’s easier to diagnose today.

Thanks to new testing techniques, such as a test that is called the PCA3, prostate cancer is easier to detect in its early stages. This test helps to detect proteins that only cancer cells produce when prostate cancer is present. It’s got about an 80% accuracy rate and is usually followed with a biopsy for confirmation.

3. It grows incredibly slowly.

There are multiple post-mortem exams of men who were well into their 80’s and even 90’s that showed they had cancer in their prostate. The cells were so slow growing, however, that they were present for 25 years or more and didn’t cause any symptoms at all. These guys were able to live fulfilling lives without treatment and died from other causes.

4. It’s a lycopene kind of day.

Foods that are high in lycopene are known to help lower the risks of prostate cancer development. Some of the best foods with lycopene are tomatoes or products derived from them. Daily exercise to maintain a healthy weight also has some effect on lowering the risks of prostate cancer.

5. There are several treatment options available.

Many of the treatments for prostate cancer have minimal or no side effects. Removing the prostate can effectively solve the problem, but freezing or heat treatments can also destroy the glands. Radiotherapy might also be used. The survival rates are similar and thanks to modern medical techniques, most serious side effects have become a thing of the past.

6. It’s the most common type of male cancer.

The reason why prostate cancer awareness is so emphasized is because it is the most common type of cancer in men. Those who have a family history of prostate cancer already have a naturally higher risk and having an STD or STI over the course of a lifetime also seems to increase the risks as well.

Thousands of men die every year from prostate cancer. Get checked this year, do self-checks at home if you can’t get into the doctor, and make regular check-ups a habit. In doing so, this cancer can be detected early and effectively treated.