Definitions for Kids

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Monarchy is a form of government that is headed and run by a king, queen, emperor or empress. At times, monarchies have been run by appointed ministers or members of the royal family when the prince or princess was being groomed or in the absence of the king or queen. It is largely agreed that monarchy is the oldest form of government. There is evidence that in some civilizations, there were no monarchs or any central rule but ever since nations have formed or kingdoms have been established, which pretty much begins the evolution of society, there have been monarchies.

Types of Monarchy

There are two types of monarchy. One is known as absolute monarchy and the other is called constitutional monarchy. The traditional form of monarchy is the former, wherein the monarch has absolute powers. Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is the present king of Saudi Arabia which has an absolute monarchy.

In absolute monarchy, the king or queen will be able to make or amend any law, establish any institution or practice and even do away with any institution, custom or law. The absolute monarch is the head of the state, politically and culturally. In some countries, the monarch is also the symbolic religious head of the nation. The armed forces in an absolute monarchy are under direct control of the king or queen and they are usually not answerable to any individual, institution or the people of the country.

Although most countries have done away with absolute monarchy, there are a few that still have such a form of government, including Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Vatican City, Oman and Brunei.

Constitutional Monarchy Explained

Constitutional monarchy is a combination of democracy and monarchy but it does away with autocracy or authoritarian elements in governance. A country having constitutional monarchy will have a constitution governing the land and its people, guiding legislation or lawmaking and also ensuring liberty, equality and fraternity, assuring the fundamental rights and laying out the duties of every citizen. The country will also have a king or queen, mostly both. The royal family will act as the figurehead of the country, more as a symbol in a ceremonial role. The royal family doesn’t have any constitutional powers. The king or queen cannot make laws. They cannot change laws. They don’t have any power to rule the people or the land. They are regarded as heads of state and are more like symbolic representation of the land, the people, culture and the society as one. In some cases, they also represent the faith or religion of the people of the country.

The United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Spain, Japan and Thailand have constitutional monarchy. Australia and New Zealand also have constitutional monarchy but they consider the queen of England as their monarch. There are no kings or queens or any royal family in New Zealand and Australia. Once colonies, Australia and New Zealand were a part of the erstwhile commonwealth and have chosen to continue regarding the legacy of the British monarchy.

All constitutional monarchies are not the same. Queen Elizabeth II is the monarch of England and the United Kingdom as well as the nations within the commonwealth that still regard her as the figurative head. Not all former colonies have done that. There is substantial difference in different constitutional monarchies in the world. While it is typical of heads of states to have no power over the people, lawmaking, armed forces or even matters of the state, they may or may not have veto and they may be subjected to different laws.

The United Kingdom has special laws for the royal family. They are treated differently but would be subjected to the same civil and criminal laws if they are found guilty of a crime. The royal families are just treated different in ceremonies, they tour the world and represent the country and its people, they act as the true representative without taking any political sides and they don’t influence the will of the people in elections. In some cases, the king or queen becomes active in politics. In most cases, they don’t. They don’t even vote, although they can.

Some constitutional monarchies allow more freedom to the royal family while some tend to curb them. In the Netherlands, there are laws dictating who the princes or princesses would marry. They also need to seek permission of the lawmakers, the elected representatives of people in the parliament before marrying. While you would find the lawmakers, armed forces and general citizens taking oath in the name of the monarch, king or queen, they don’t owe any legal or statutory allegiance in reality. All powers rest in the parliamentarians and ministers or the executive elected by the people of the country.

Constitutional monarchy has been debated by some and deemed futile as the state or the country spends a lot of money on the royal family, from security to their wellbeing and prosperity. Some consider it necessary to recognize the history and the legacy of a royal family. For ordinary citizens, the royal family just represents the culture, the history and the evolution of their society.

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The most basic chromatin definition you are going to come across is that it represents a mass of genetic material. However, in order to appreciate what chromatin truly does, you are going to want to dig deeper.

It Is Composed Of Both DNA And Proteins

The first fact that you will want to keep in mind is that chromatin is comprised of both DNA and proteins. These are then condensed to forming chromosomes, which occurs during the process known as eukaryotic cell division. You can find chromatin within the nucleus of your cells.

Understanding The Primary Function

As we delve deeper into the world of chromatin, we will next want to consider the primary function. This involves compressing the DNA into compact units that are now going to be considered less voluminous. At this point, these things can now be fit within your nucleus.

You are also going to want to appreciate the fact that chromatin is made up of complexes of smallish proteins. These smallish proteins are known as histones and DNA. Histone works at organizing DNA into a structure that goes by the name of nucleosomes. They provide a base that allows the DNA the benefit of easy wrapping. The nucleosomes consist of DNA sequences that offer one hundred and fifty base pairs, which are then wrapped around an eight-histone set known as the octomer. These nucleosomes are then additionally folded to create chromatin fibers. These chromatin fibers will now undergo a coiling process, which translates to a condensation process that creates chromosomes.

Chromatin fibers are coiled and condensed to form chromosomes.

Euchromatin and Heterochromatin

Dependent upon the stage of the cell within their cell cycles, the chromatin within the cell can become compacted to a variety of degrees. Within the nucleus, chromatin can be realized in the form of euchromatin and heterochromatin.

Interphase Of The Cycle

Over the course of interphase of this cycle, cells are not actually dividing. What they are actually doing is going through a significant period of growth. Euchromatin works at exposing more of your DNA, in order to allow for replication and DNA transcription to take place. The DNA double-helix will begin unwinding, which should end with opening genes for coding with proteins that are awaiting copy.

Mitosis

The Mitosis element to chromatin is a topic long enough to create its own article. Look into such definitions featured with Mitosis, which includes prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Each definition has its own unique process.

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Who doesn’t love a visit to the theme park? From the rides, to the games, and even the tasty sweet treats, theme parks offer a great amount of entertainment and fun for families and kids of all ages. Among the most enjoyable and exciting rides you can experience when you visit a theme park is the rollercoaster.

But despite the unrivalled enjoyment that roller coasters provide, lots of people are often afraid of them because they seem unsafe and perilous. How sure can you be that you won’t fall out of the ride once those loops and tight turns start twirling you through the air? Well, thanks to a little known concept called centripetal force, you won’t need to worry about falling out of your favorite ride.

Centripetal force is the force that acts towards the center of a circle that an object is moving along. That’s why when a roller coaster does a loop, your body doesn’t fall out of the seat but instead maintains its distance from the center of the loop.

1. Centripetal Force in the Universe

Did you know that centripetal force is a highly present force all throughout the universe? What we don’t often realize is that this force acts on nearly all of the heavenly bodies we find in outer space. A prime example of this is the moon. The moon maintains its orbit around the earth because of centripetal force. The gravity between the earth and the moon maintain the moon’s distance from our planet and keeps it from drifting away. In the same way, the earth also maintains its revolution around the sun because of centripetal force.

2. The Opposite

Of course, while the centripetal force keeps objects from drifting away or flying outside of a range of motion, there is an opposite force than can cause objects to fling out of orbit. This force is called centrifugal force. Imagine yourself holding on to the bars of a merry go round as your friends start to spin it faster. As you the spinning increases, you’re forced to hold on tighter. When you let go, you’re likely to fall out of the ride. Centripetal force was created as you held on the ride and was the force that kept you in place, but when you let go, it was centrifugal force that left you flying out of the ride.

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Just like you and me, the animals of the wild need to constantly eat in order to keep themselves alive. Because they don’t have supermarkets and grocery stores in the wild, many animals need to hunt in order to find food. These animals are called carnivores, which are defined as creatures that that feed on flesh. There are lots of interesting facts about carnivores, and these fun facts should give you a better idea regarding this amazing group of animals.

1. Two Major Groups

Taxonomists divided carnivores into two major groups in order to make it easier for people to identify the different animals in the category. Under carnivores, there are two major groups, namely dog-like carnivores and cat-like carnivores. The first group is made up of animals with anatomic features that are more like dogs, including wolves, bears, and racoons. Cat-like carnivores on the other hand are animals that are more like cats, including lions, hyenas, and civets.

2. The Biggest Carnivore

There are lots of different kinds of carnivores, and the biggest one known to man today is the brown bear. Found in northern Eurasia and North America, the brown bear is the largest terrestrial carnivoran in existence. The bear’s diet consists of berries, plants, roots, and fruit, but when they get too hungry, they could feast on salmon and small woodland creatures. This means the brown bear doesn’t have an exclusively carnivorous diet.

3. The Smallest Carnivore

Today, the smallest carnivore recognized by modern taxonomy is the weasel. This particular creature can measure up to 260 millimeters, with a weight of around 250 grams. Weasels are a common creature, found throughout the world. Because their metabolism is very fast, they need to consume at least 40% of their body weight on a daily basis. Their diet consists mostly of mice, rabbits, gophers, and even chipmunks.

4. Strength in Numbers

While some carnivores are solitary hunters, there are those that are more effective in groups. The lion, for example, prefers to hunt in groups of two or three, while the tiger is an exclusively solitary hunter. There are some occasions however, when a lion will hunt on its own, depending on the size of the prey it’s aiming kill.

5. Omnivores

Many flesh eating animals combine other non-flesh foods into their diet. The bear, fox, and even some birds combine flesh with other foods like berries, roots, fruits, vegetables, and leaves.

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There are many different types of government and power that can be in place. Democracy might be what we know, but this is not the only form of power that has been in place throughout time. An absolute monarchy is another type of government and it involves one person or king having absolute power and control over the people. The best way to understand an absolute monarchy is to dissect one of the most known absolute monarchies from the past.

Hammurabi

There have been many leaders throughout history and some have been more notable than others. The way that many leaders are viewed is directly tied to their contributions and accomplishments that took place while they were in power. Hammurabi was born as the son to Sin- Muballit, who was the King of Babylon at the time of Hammurabi’s birth. This means that he was raised as the Prince of Babylon before he took over for his father as king. He grew up learning about Babylonian history and was groomed at a young age to take over the crown. It is said, that Hammurabi learned how to rule by watching his father and listening to his advisors. Even though Hammurabi was just one in a long list of kings, he made a tremendous impact during his rule. It is important that you are aware of all the accomplishments that are liked to Hammurabi.

Growing Babylonian

When Hammurabi became king of Babylon he was only eighteen years old. This means that he was fairly young and he was taking over a city-state that was not very large. Babylon was fairly small when Hammurabi first gained control and power. There were a lot of kingdoms that surrounded Hammurabi that were much larger than it was. This meant that Hammurabi knew that he had to try to maintain peace to ensure that Babylon would be safe and would not be attacked by other larger kingdoms. He also knew that Babylon would need to make treaties with the most powerful kingdoms to make sure that they were always protected.

This was a strategy that he developed early on and it helped to grow Babylon from small to a large kingdom. Once he knew that Babylon was safe from attack, he then went about building it in size and defense. This was done by strengthening the walls of the city and making sure that the irrigation system of Babylon was improved. As the city began to grow, it became more and more prosperous over time. This resulted in Babylon being one of the largest and most powerful kingdoms under Hammurabi’s rule. Many sons that take over as king for their father often have little success, but Hammurabi made a big impact right away in growing Babylon.

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There have been a number of movements that have taken place throughout history and the ultimate goal of these movements was to bring about change. One of the most notable movements that had a tremendous impact on society as a whole is the abolitionist movement. This is a movement that occurred in both Europe and the Americas and involved ending slavery. Those that were against slavery and looking to end it were a part of the abolitionist movement. In order to have a better understanding of this movement and how it worked, you also need to be more informed about people that had key roles in the abolitionist movement.

Frederick Douglas

One of the biggest accomplishments that Frederick boasts in his life is the ability to escape slavery. He was one of the few people that was instrumental in the abolitionist movement early on and did not let any obstacles stand in his way in the fight against slavery. He was an ex slave himself, but he was still someone that was fighting for the freedoms of others. He even decided to share his own story and how he escaped freedom by writing his own autobiography. He wanted to make sure that his story was heard and that people were aware of what it actually took to escape slavery and what a pareson had to endure when they were enslaved. This is something that was very brave and it made a huge impact when his autobiography was released.

Harriet Tubman

Hariet Tubman was another individual that was impactful in the fight against slavery. One of the things that Tubman was most proud of was her pursuit of freedom for enslaved people.She made it a priority to actually help people that were enslaved to find their way to freedom. This was very risky and dangerous, but this is also something that Tubman believed in strongly and she would not let anything stand in her way of helping people escape slavery. She even had the ability to become a landowner in her lifetime which was a major accomplishment for someone that was involved in the abolitionist movement because she got to see her hard work pay off.

Web Dubois

There are some public figures that have made their mark on history forever. Web Dubois is one of the few people in history that has a list of accomplishments that can match up against just about anyone. He might not be as famous as come people in history, but the impact that he has had on history is just as powerful. It is important that you are aware of some of Web Dubois greatest accomplishments.

Here are the top accomplishments of Web Dubois:

Education
A big accomplishment that Web Dubois had during his lifetime was his pursuit of education. He was actually born free and pursued a degree. He is known as the first African American to obtain a Ph. D. from Harvard. This is a huge accomplishment and was viewed as a move toward equality when Dubois was getting this degree. During the time period when Dubois went to Harvard not many African Americans were pursuing basic educations let alone a more advanced degree.

Professor
Dubois also achieved the title of professor at Atlanta University. Dubois spent a lot of time learning about the African American experience in the south during his tenure as a professor at this university. He was someone that felt education was key and should be accessible for all. He made it a priority to make education more available and always thought that education was the best way to achieve equality.

Fight With Washington
Another of the accomplishments that is on Dubois resume involves his fight against Washington T. Booker. He was a person working in the abolitionist movement that did not just go along with Booker and often disagreed with his opinion. Booker was known as the biggest proponents of African Americans pursuing educations that were vocational in nature, but Dubois argued that this was not right. He felt that African Americans required a classical education and should not be limited in any way. He was very outspoken in his fight against Booker.

Niagara Movement
Dubois also fought hard to end discrimination in any form and was a man that met to create the Niagara Movement. This was a movement that was seen as radical by many white people, but it was a movement that was tied to equality. Dubois was not afraid to take action and to stick up for what he believed in even if it was not viewed as the norm by others.

As you can see, there are many people that played a part in the abolitionist movement and who helped make slavery a thing of the past that would no longer be a part of current culture.

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Transpiration is the process by which plants absorb water from the soil, circulate it to all the branches and leaves to eventually release water vapor in the atmosphere through the pores of the leaves.

Transpiration: Explained!

Like animals, plants need water to survive. The root of a plant absorbs water from the soil. The absorbed water travels up the stem and the veins carry the water to the leaves. Upon the necessary absorption of water by the cells of the plant, at the root, stem, branches and leaves, the excess water is released in the form of water vapor through the stoma of the leaves. Water is pivotal to the survival of plants.

Plants can absorb groundwater through the roots, they can absorb surface water and it can also use rainwater. The leaves and the stem or the branches would absorb water but not to an extent that the roots are capable of. The roots are the most capable absorber of water, which is why one has to water the roots or the ground and not just the leaves of the plants. Even if you spray water on the leaves and stems, the larger quantum of the water sprayed would accumulate at the ground, moistening the soil wherefrom the root would extract the water, rendering the soil dry.

Significance of Transpiration

Transpiration is crucial for the survival of plants. But it is also crucial for the animal kingdom and also the ecology. Transpiration is largely responsible for the water vapor available in the atmosphere and that is also what contributes substantially to the different forms of precipitation.

The sun plays a significant role in evaporation and that leads to rainfall. However, not every region in the world has available surface water, be it rivers, lakes or seas to facilitate evaporation of enough moisture to bring in sufficient rains. The water vapor released by the leaves of the plants lead to a greater accumulation. There is a reason why rainforests or heavily forested areas get more rainfall.
Transpiration can make groundwater available in the atmosphere since the roots extract the moisture and the water vapor is eventually released by the leaves. This groundwater is not exposed to the sun and thus cannot contribute to the evaporation necessary for adequate condensation and subsequent precipitation.

Transpiration is a significant process to maintain the ecological balance. The cutting of trees and thus the decline of water vapor released at the end of transpiration is directly impacting the ecology and that is facilitating global warming.

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Did you know that every year, Hawaii moves at least 4 inches closer to Japan? But these two bodies of land aren’t the only ones shuffling around the earth’s surface. According to researchers and scientists, all of the different land formations on the earth today are constantly moving and changing positions relative to one another. Of course, because the movements are slow and gradual, we might not be able to notice the changes until after a couple years.

Yes, it may seem impossible for chunks of land to move, but there is a perfectly reasonable explanation for this seemingly unlikely occurrence. Across the surface of the earth are hundreds of irregularly shaped plates called tectonic plates on which the continents and bodies of water rest. When the heat and pressure from the earth’s core pushes up and rises to the surface, the plates are forced to shift and move, thus causing the movements of the formations on the earth.

Fun Facts about Tectonic Plates

1. Prehistoric Pangea – Back in the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic era, scientists believe there was a giant land formation which they called Pangea. They say that this supercontinent was made up of all the different bodies of land we know today. That means if cars existed when Pangea was still around, you could drive anywhere in the world! But as the earth evolved, the tectonic plates underneath Pangea caused it to break and drift into lots of different little pieces forming land and continents as they are today.

2. Slipping on Magma – Imagine placing a pot of boiling water on a stove. When you put the heat up, bubbles form and push themselves up to the surface of the water because of the climbing temperature. The same idea goes for the structure of the earth. Because the earth’s core is very hot, magma flows and rushes higher to the surface, pushing the solid plates around and causing them to move. That means the tectonic plates are constantly slipping on a thick layer of magma just below the earth’s solid crust.

3. Bigger than You Think – Tectonic plates aren’t your regular kitchen dishes – they come in a variety of shapes and are much bigger than the plates you eat your breakfast off of. Today, modern science recognizes 8 major plates, and the biggest of them all, the Pacific Plate, is 103,300,000 square kilometres large! There are also 10 different minor plates, and the New Hebrides Plate counts as the smallest at just 1,1000,000 square kilometres.

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Quadrilateral is a group of geometric shapes, figures or diagrams that have a distinct attribute. There are innumerable geographic shapes or figures and there are endless possibilities of tweaking the conventional diagrams or forms. Almost all such shapes and figures are classified in specific groups based on their similarities. Quadrilateral is one such classification or group.

Quadrilateral Definition

Quadrilateral literally means four sides. Any shape that has four sides will be considered a quadrilateral. The name itself is a coinage of quad and lateral. Quad means four and lateral is side. A quadrilateral is a two dimensional figure. It cannot be three dimensional because then it would not have four sides. Imagine any three dimensional figure and it would have more than four sides or edges. Whenever thickness or depth comes into the picture, there are more edges, sides, angles or vertices. Accordingly, a quadrilateral can be illustrated further.

A quadrilateral should have four sides, four edges, four vertices forming four angles and those interior angles must collectively form 360 degrees. It is a given that the sides would have to be straight lines since the moment you bend the lines beyond a quad shaped figure, you would have more sides unless it is an open shape.

Common Quadrilaterals

There are two types of quadrilaterals, regular and irregular. The common quadrilaterals are square, rectangle, rhombus, trapezoid and kite. Square, rectangle and rhombus qualify as parallelograms. Parallelograms are hence a form of quadrilateral. Only square is a regular quadrilateral because all its four sides are equal. All other shapes listed here are irregular quadrilaterals.

• A rectangle with its four sides, four right angles and parallel opposite sides being equal in length is a parallelogram and a quadrilateral.
• A rhombus, also called a diamond or rhomb, with its four equal sides but not forming right angles is a quadrilateral.
• A trapezoid, also called trapezium, with two equal parallel sides and two unequal parallel sides is a quadrilateral. A trapezoid has two acute angles and two obtuse angles. There are no right angles in a trapezoid. There are many variants of trapeziums, like the isosceles trapezoid.
• The shape of a kite makes it a quadrilateral. There are two equal sides adjacent to one another at the top and the two sides at the bottom are also equal. This is true regardless of the size of a kite. A kite doesn’t have any right angles inside but the two lateral interior angles are equal.

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There are different meanings of the term circuit. In a literal sense, a circuit is a diagram or route that begins and ends at the same point or place. The path may be circular, a square, rectangular, triangle, polygonal or any kind of geometric shape as long as the start and the end points are the same. In electronics, a circuit is the path that has two or any number of points and the path determines the flow of an electric current.

Types of Circuit

There are two types of circuits, series and parallel. A series circuit is one line connecting all points or components in the path. The shape of the circuit may vary but every component, ala lights and power outlets, will be lined up one after the other. Imagine lining up ten bulbs using a single wire connected to the power source. A single wire will allow the passage of an electric current which will light up all the bulbs. In a series circuit, all lights will glow a bit dimly because the power is being shared by all the components and is hence being split by the number of components there is in the circuit. If one component breaks in the circuit or doesn’t function, then the whole circuit will go off. If the first bulb goes off or there is a wiring problem in the circuit, then the whole apparatus would malfunction.

Parallel Circuit: Explained!

A parallel circuit is a path wherein multiple branches originate from the primary wire leading to various components and then those branches converge to meet at one or several points, eventually having a single wire close the circuit.

Imagine the wiring in your home. There is a main line that connects your home to the power grid. The main line then gets routed through the distribution box. From there, many wires branch out to power different appliances. Usually, there are various subpanels or sub-distribution boxes for different rooms or parts of the property. There are separate main lines for large appliances. For smaller appliances or uses, like lights and fans, the main line is split into different lines connecting every appliance or fixture.

A parallel circuit allows for multiple disassociated passages of electric current. A problem in the wire connecting your fan would not turn off the lights. The circuit breaker for the air conditioner or heater going kaput will not affect the washing machine or the refrigerator. They all are connected to the main line of your home but there are separate branches that work independently, being a part of the same circuit.