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Ribs are bones carried by the vertebral column in the thoracic region. It extends from the dorsal surface to the ventral medial line of the body. These structures enclose and protect organs located in the cavity of thoracic region. They are structurally strong but they could be injured if they are stroked by greater force that is not bearable for the ribs to withstand.

Like any other injury, pain is one of the prominent symptoms experienced by a person suffering from bruised rib. When the fractured area is pressed or touched while breathing, consequently pain is experienced. This is because the ends of the broken ribs damages and therefore, tenderizes the breathing muscles that cause a painful breathing if pressed. This difficulty in breathing is called Pleuritic pain.

Red visibility in the skin is where the injured ribs underlie. Discoloration or bruising appears at the site of injury. This is a shallow type of symptoms of bruised ribs. This kind of injury has an effect on every activity an individual does. Even simple activity like walking, bending and standing in an upright position is quite painful. Twisting the torso might cause stinging pain and difficulty in finding a comfortable sleeping position. Since it is painful, it indicates rib injuries.

When a rib is bruised, its ends tend to put pressure and disturb vital organs it encloses especially the lungs. Probably, it is because of the displacement of ribs from its initial position. Consequently, due to a blunt trauma, ribs could be broken. It has an effect on the function of lungs and that is why short breathing is experienced. This phenomenon could lead to risks of lung infection and sequentially, it may cause pneumonia. Averting this kind of fracture must be facilitated by medical assistance.

The initiation of a treatment processes must be done immediately. Home medication is relevant. Wrap up an icepack and place it gently on the injured site technically on the area of discoloration. Allot fifteen to twenty minutes of contact and afterwards, remove the icepack and evaluate the intensity of swelling. If ever the ice pack treatment did not lessen the swelling, go and seek professional medical help.

It is hard for the doctor to treat a rib injury. The common method is conducting and X-ray of the upper extremities to see and examine the injury; requiring the patient to take enough rest and prevent oneself from doing excessive movements that cause pain. Inflammatory and swelling sensation can be relieved by taking up anti-inflammatory medicines prescribed by the doctor.

The use of immobilizing belts is usually restricted by doctors for it would contribute to the increased risk in obtaining pneumonia. Doctors suggest to patients not to participate in any exhausting physical activities to prevent further damage of ribs. For those people who are part in sports activities and do not want to bruise their ribs, wearing protective gear is a prerequisite to prevent the chest from unexpected trauma. Predominantly, the people who got their selves completely healed from rib fracture are obliged to exercise gently to strengthen and improve the flexibility of their muscles.

Human Body Facts

Noroviruses or Norwalk virus causes inflammation of the large intestine lining and the stomach, and considered as the main culprit of gastroenteritis in the U.S. Norwalk virus is named after the town of Norwalk, Ohio where the virus originated in 1972.

Norwalk virus or noroviruses are often called food poisoning as they can be transmitted though foods that have been contaminated with the virus. But, they are not always the result of food contamination. These viruses are also called stomach flu, but they are not influenza virus.

What Causes Norwalk Virus Infection?

Individuals can get infected with the virus if they drink fluids or eat foods that have been contaminated particularly raw fruits and vegetables, and raw or undercooked oysters. Individuals can also get infected with Norwalk virus if they touch their nose, eyes, and mouth after touching surfaces or objects that have been contaminated with the virus.

The 5 Most Common Symptoms

Individuals infected with Norwalk virus can suffer gastroenteritis within 24 hours. Symptoms include diarrhea and vomiting, and loose and watery bowel movement. Other symptoms include abdominal cramps, low fever, headache, and aching muscles. Children infected with Norwalk virus may have diarrhea that can lasts for about a week, which results to dehydration. Vomiting and high fever are also significant to young children infected with the virus. The most common symptoms of Norwalk virus infection include:

1. Low-Grade Fever
2. Muscle Aches
3. Headache
4. Fatigue
5. Chills

Most Norwalk virus symptoms are not serious, but vomiting and diarrhea can deplete the fluids in the body, which results in dehydration. Elderly and children are susceptible to dehydration, and malnutrition for not getting the right amount of nutrients.

Individuals with Norwalk virus infection symptoms can be given by their doctor with a stool test in order to conform for the presence of the virus in their stomach. Nevertheless, diagnosis for norovirus infection is made through symptoms. In addition, some people infected with norovirus may not demonstrate any symptom, which means that they have natural immunity to the virus.

Top 4 Norovirus Infection Preventions

Because norovirus infection is transmitted, it means that it can be prevented. Probably, good hygiene is the primary key to preventing norovirus infection, particularly if you are in closed surroundings with many other people. Wash your hands more often with clean water and soap, or use alcohol-based hand sanitizers after holding objects and surfaces in public areas.

1. Dispose any contaminated items with safety precautions, especially dirty baby and adult diapers.

2. Wash raw vegetables and fruits thoroughly before preparing them. As for oysters and other shellfish, cook them is necessary before you eat them.

3. If someone gets sick and fully recovered, clean and disinfect surfaces with a mixture of chlorine and detergent.

4. If you’re infected with norovirus, don’t prepare for you and your family’s food for at least two to three days or until you fully recovered. Do not eat foods that have been prepared by someone who is also sick.

If you are infected with Norwalk virus, you will go down from being healthy to sick, and it’s highly important to consult your doctor to get immediate medical attention, and to cure the illness.

The Complete Guide To Norovirus

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There are many human genes in the body and two of the more prominent ones that have been linked to breast cancer are BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes are often talked about and tested for simultaneously, but it is important to remember that they are different genes and are not identical. To get a better understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing, it is essential to learn about the differences of each. This is a part of your health that you must take an interest in, because it has been known to save lives. Simply being aware and knowledgeable about BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can have an immense impact on your overall health.

What are BRCA1 and BRCA2?

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are both human genes, but they are different genes that occur inside the body. Both of these genes have the function inside the body of making proteins that re designed to suppress the growth of tumors. This means that both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have the function of repairing DNA, but this function can be impaired if these genes are altered or mutated in any way. This means that you can be at risk of mutated cells and cancer growth through DNA damage. That is why BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing has become so essential. These genes have the same function in the body, but they are not the same.

Heredity and BRCA1 BRCA2 Genes

Breast cancer has been found to be hereditary and can be passed on from one generation to the other. This is due to the fact that some BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are more prone to mutation than others. Having inherited mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can put you at a much greater risk of breast cancer. These mutated BRCA! And BRCA2 genes can be inherited from either or both parents. It has also been found that mutated BRCA2 genes are also linked to ovarian cancer. It is possible for mutated BRCA1 genes to cause ovarian cancer, but not as frequently as altered BRCA2 genes.

Knowledge and Testing

Since BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have such a strong connection to breast and ovarian cancers, it has become common practice for gene testing to be used as a preventative treatment. This means individuals that have mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes will undergo preventive measures to ensure that these cancers are avoided.

October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month

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Like anything else, egg donation is associated with pros and cons for couples who wanted to have their own baby. Women who are fertile donate eggs to many egg donor banks across the world. The eggs they donate are used for artificial insemination procedures to couples who are not fertile. Regardless of the artificial insemination procedure to be undertaken, both donors and recipients must know the pros and cons of this highly controversial process.

The 3 Pros of Egg Donation

1. Psychological Effects
Egg donation both have positive and negative psychological effects. Women who choose to donate fertile egg feel happy about helping other women conceive. However, some concerns are arising about egg donation. According to the Fertility and Sterility article, 1 out 5 women are afraid to donate eggs as they feel uncomfortable about how their donated eggs will be used, or even how the child will be raised.

2. Availability
Several or many of the egg donation brokers seek particular types of person according to their genetics, race, physical characteristics, and even intelligence, so couples unable to conceive can find eggs that can match their characteristics as a whole. The screening for egg donors involves testing for the mental attitude of the donor to the recipient or vise versa. If negative attitude is observed between the two parties, the egg donation may be canceled.

3. Monetary Benefits
In other countries, egg donation is treated same with organ donation, and donors are not paid for their act. However, in some places, cash is offered to women who are willing to donate fertile eggs. In fact, there has been a case reported that a single woman was offered $4000 for up to dozens of her eggs per harvesting session.

The 2 Cons of Egg Donation

1. Health Risks
Few of the health risks involved in egg donation may include, but not limited to pain, cramping, over stimulation of the ovary, and infections. There is no study suggesting that egg donation can interfere with the woman’s capability to conceive by her own self or the entire fertility process. While donors go through rigorous heath screening, these health risks may still develop.

2. Egg with Genetic Defects
There is a high possibility the egg donated can have genetic defects or may develop disorders while the unfertile woman is conceiving. A woman donating fertile eggs may not be aware that she has a medical history of mental deficiencies or heart problems.

The Verdict

The popular opinion of the public is that a woman donating her eggs is not actually giving her eggs in exchange for money. In many countries, a woman cannot be legally paid for her eggs. However, due to the inconvenience of egg donation, the donor is compensated with cash. With the number of exams and screenings, and medical treatment required by the egg donation process, the amount required for monetary compensation is extremely high. The amount of money given by egg donation brokers and recipients to the donor can be used by the patient in any means that she prefers to use it.

Fresh VS Frozen Egg Donation

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Tympanosotomy tube is placed in the ear of a child to cure ear infections such as chronic fluid in the ear. Usually, the ear tube is placed in the child if 3 episodes of ear infection already occurred within 6 months or 4 episodes have occurred during 12 months. While ear tubes are thought to help the patients recover from ear infections, there are still disadvantages that come along with it. This article will discuss the pros and cons of ear tubes, and help you determine if it is the best possible treatment for your child.

The Top 5 Pros of Ear Tubes

Ear tubes can help improve the quality of life of patient and their family in many ways. The benefits of ear tubes include the following:

1. Ear tubes reduce the frequencies of ear infections.

2. Ear tubes reduce the severity of ear infections including fussiness, ear pain, hearing loss, ear fluid secretion, and more.

3. Reduces cases of anxiety depression for caregivers taking good care of a child suffering from ear infections.

4. Ear tubes help improve or eve cure haring loss that results from the occurrence of chronic fluid in the middle ear.

5. Reduced drug interventions for a child such as antibiotics from receiving treatments due to ear infections.

The Top 4 Cons of Ear Tubes

However, even though ear tubes are considered to be effective and efficient in treating ear infections, there are several cons that parent need to consider before using ear tubes for their child. Ear tubes are design treat hearing loss and ear infections, but they do not cure these medical conditions entirely. Complications may occur including the following.

1. Ear infections can also occur with ear tubes. A child may develop drainage from the ears that looks like common cold when the child has it.

2. Ear infections can sometimes occur if the ears of the child are exposed to water. The tubes can get contaminated, thus leading to infections.

3. Holes in the eardrum can still occur even if the ear tubes have come out off the ears of the child voluntarily. Surgery may be required to repair damaged eardrum(s).

4. Scarring may occur in almost every child with ear tubes. However, scarring does influence the way the eardrums function.

The best way to treat the ear infection of the child is to find the primary cause of the infection, and treat it before going for ear tubes. Your best defense in securing your child’s good health is being aware of the risk factors that contribute or can contribute to the development of ear infection to your child. Through this way, you can prevent the use of ear tubes, which are associated with pros and cons.

The use of ear tube can prevent or cause surgery that includes the risks of anesthesia and allergic reactions to your baby. It is highly important that you choose a reputable doctor to take care of the insertion of ear tubes to your baby’s ear. If you do not do this, the effects of ear tubes can be opposite to what you have expected.

When is Noise Too Loud